The problem affects companies large and small.
Spirit AeroSystems employs more than 10,000 in Wichita. A full 40 percent of that workforce will be eligible for retirement within five years, said Justin Welner, the companyâ€™s vice president for human resources.
â€œThis is the topic that keeps me up at night,â€� Welner said. â€œBecause we are experiencing a gap in terms of finding people with the experience we would typically require.â€�
The company may need to hire thousands within the next few years just to keep pace with attrition. Right now, there are not enough people here to do it.
Spirit is recruiting nationally to make up the difference and sometimes has to put new hires through intensive training that adds costs.
Drew Parish runs Air Solutions Heating and Cooling in Wichita. He grew the company from a one-man show to a four-person operation in three years and he wants to keep expanding. Help is hard to find, though, as he found out this year when he tried to find more employees for his repair and service business.
â€œWe couldnâ€™t get a good applicant in, no matter what avenues we were trying. There just werenâ€™t the qualified applicants,â€� Parish said.
Someone starting out with no experience can expect to make $10 to $12 an hour, while a moderately experienced employee will bring in $18 to $20, he said. High-experience workers earn $26 an hour or more.
Finding a skilled workforce has been the top concern expressed by members of the Wichita Regional Chamber of Commerce for the last four to five years, Plummer said.
Wichita needs to keep talent flowing into the state to keep the city and Kansas attractive to businesses, he said.
â€œItâ€™s holding back economic growth, I believe, in this state because those jobs are not always being filled,â€� Plummer said.
Focus on education
So how can Kansas find and keep enough workers â€“ particularly those with technical skills that are in demand?
The state faces dual challenges. It must both train its own residents for these jobs and attract workers from elsewhere.
To lure Kansans to enter these trades, more emphasis is needed on vocational and technical training, some say.
â€œEveryoneâ€™s going to four-year colleges, which is very admirable, but itâ€™s leaving this industry â€¦ at a loss,â€� said Parish, who runs the heating and cooling company.
Nearly 75 percent of the more than 8,300 vacancies in south-central Kansas last year required some type of training or education. About 10 percent required vocational training.
In south-central Kansas, 24 percent of job vacancies had no education requirements in 2016, down from 36 percent in 2008.
Education must adapt, says interim Kansas Commerce Secretary Nick Jordan.
â€œThereâ€™s going to have to be an adjustment in the education system … to a certain extent, to get the system adjusted to the skills â€“ educating kids to whatâ€™s needed in todayâ€™s economy,â€� he said.
Kansas has a program that allows high school students to qualify for state-paid tuition in some technical and community college courses. The number taking part rose from about 6,101 when it started in 2012 to 10,275 in the 2014-2015 year before falling to 10,023 last year.
Some lawmakers and business leaders say the program needs better funding.
The Kansas State Department of Education has also launched a redesign of K-12 schools meant to value and support students who choose to pursue technical careers as much as those who go to college. A handful of districts are redesigning now as part of a pilot project.
Mark Tallman, a lobbyist with the Kansas Association of School Boards, said a perception still exists in Kansas, and other states, that students should attend college even if they may want to go in a different direction.
â€œThereâ€™s more social prestige in those areas, but what we find is kids â€“ they start in that area but if you donâ€™t have the preparation and the interest, you drop out, you arenâ€™t retained and then maybe youâ€™re kind of out of the system,â€� Tallman said. â€œWe know thatâ€™s an issue.â€�
Tam Nguyen is one 18-year-old who opted not to go to a traditional four-year college.
Nguyen, who emigrated from Vietnam three years ago, chose to enter the aviation maintenance program at Wichita Area Technical College.
She wants to someday work for the aircraft manufacturer Textron Aviation.
The idea of helping build safe airplanes appeals to her â€“ as does the possibility of a good-paying job without amassing college debt.
â€œI feel important, I feel special in doing it â€“ happy,â€� Nguyen said.
Still, Kansas is also interested in retaining people who have college degrees. Rep. Brandon Whipple, the ranking Democrat on the House commerce committee, said Kansas has to reverse its â€œbrain drain.â€�
â€œOur number one export in Wichita and possibly all of Kansas is highly educated young people,â€� Whipple said.
Kansas needs to work to bring jobs to the state that will appeal to young people, said Jordan, the commerce secretary.
â€œWe have to start attracting companies that the kids will enjoy working for,â€� Jordan said, mentioning Amazon, which is seeking a site for its second headquarters. The Brownback administration is promoting the Kansas City area as a potential location.
Tax incentives often play a role in luring companies to the state, but some businesses want the state to explore new types of programs.
Welner, the Spirit executive, suggested Kansas should look at relocation incentives to assist workers moving to the state to take a job.
Parish, the owner of Air Solutions, wishes Kansas had an apprenticeship tax credit that would make it easier to hire people without experience and put in the time needed to train them.
Some lawmakers want a greater focus on the kind of jobs that incentives are bringing to Kansas.
â€œAre those the kind of jobs we want to have? Are those jobs that have a good wage? Are they jobs that can attract high school and post-high school people that have some experience?â€� Lynn said.
Recent efforts to bring a new Tyson Foods plant to Kansas have highlighted these concerns.
Tyson announced plans to build a $320 million poultry complex near Tonganoxie, northeast of Lawrence. Tyson says the plant would generate 1,600 jobs.
But the company put its plans on hold after the county government rescinded an offer to issue revenue bonds to help finance the project amid intense local opposition.
The Kansas Department of Commerce already faces legislative scrutiny over how it deploys its economic development programs. Kansas has to balance what companies to pursue, and what companies are coming after Kansas, when making decisions about incentives, Jordan said.
â€œAnd certainly, weâ€™re after those (companies) that have the high skills, best paying jobs,â€� Jordan said.
â€œWeâ€™re not going to turn somebody down if they come in and they have a manufacturing plant thatâ€™s not paying $100,000 a year. Weâ€™re not going to turn them down, and the programs can help them, too.â€�
Quality of life important
Quality of life also plays a key role in attracting people to the state. That includes the type of jobs available, but also good schools, low crime and other amenities.
Kansas and other Great Plains states can face trouble in keeping workers because labor is more mobile in these states than elsewhere in the country, said Kenneth Kriz, a economist at Wichita State University.
That makes quality of life considerations all the more important.
â€œWhen people lose a job in this part of the world, they leave. If they lose a job living in California or something, they may choose to stick it out and try and find another job there first,â€� Kriz said.
The state also needs to do a better job promoting itself, lawmakers say. Senate President Susan Wagle, R-Wichita, said the state needs to start telling the â€œgood storyâ€� about its people and the opportunity here.
Nguyen, the Wichita Area Technical College student, is already convinced. She said ultimately working in aviation maintenance in Wichita will help her earn a good wage while staying close to family.
â€œTake the opportunity and make a better future,â€� Nguyen said.
CONTRIBUTING: HUNTER WOODALL OF THE KANSAS CITY STAR